[Beowulf] Inside the Titan Supercomputer: 299K AMD x86 Cores and 18.6K NVIDIA GPUs

Vincent Diepeveen diep at xs4all.nl
Wed Oct 31 06:17:21 PDT 2012


Let's see. PDF about K20 says:

K20 gpgpu: "3x the double precision performance compared to the  
previous generation... M2090.."

M2090 : 665 gflop.

See: http://www.nvidia.com/object/tesla-servers.html

A theoretic peak of: 18.6k * 0.665 tflop * 3 = 37.107 Pflop

That's very impressive!

Note i assume the newer AMD cpu's were used becasue of their  
agreggated bandwidth and low price
when ordering that many. In itself these cpu's are not showing much  
of a performance.

In fact previous generation 12 core opterons are faster for my chess  
software - yet that doesn't need big bandwidth
and doesn't require floating point - it's just integer code.

The real impressive step forwards is of course the K20.
Factor 3 over previous generation is a BIG STEP FORWARD.

I wonder what individual price of such gpu will be!

On Oct 31, 2012, at 2:00 PM, Eugen Leitl wrote:

>
> http://www.anandtech.com/print/6421
>
> Inside the Titan Supercomputer: 299K AMD x86 Cores and 18.6K NVIDIA  
> GPUs
>
> by Anand Lal Shimpi on 10/31/2012 1:28:00 AM
>
> Posted in  CPUs , Cloud Computing , IT Computing , HPC , GPU ,  
> GPUs , Video ,
> nvidia
>
> Earlier this month I drove out to Oak Ridge, Tennessee to pay a  
> visit to the
> Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). I'd never been to a national lab
> before, but my ORNL visit was for a very specific purpose: to  
> witness the
> final installation of the Titan supercomputer.
>
> ORNL is a US Department of Energy laboratory that's managed by UT- 
> Battelle.
> Oak Ridge has a core competency in computational science, making it  
> not only
> unique among all DoE labs but also making it perfect for a big  
> supercomputer.
>
> Titan is the latest supercomputer to be deployed at Oak Ridge,  
> although it's
> technically a significant upgrade rather than a brand new  
> installation.
> Jaguar, the supercomputer being upgraded, featured 18,688 compute  
> nodes -
> each with a 12-core AMD Opteron CPU. Titan takes the Jaguar base,  
> maintaining
> the same number of compute nodes, but moves to 16-core Opteron CPUs  
> paired
> with an NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU per node. The result is 18,688 CPUs  
> and 18,688
> GPUs, all networked together to make a supercomputer that should be  
> capable
> of landing at or near the top of the TOP500 list.
>
> Over the course of a day in Oak Ridge I got a look at everything  
> from how
> Titan was built to the types of applications that are run on the
> supercomputer. Having seen a lot of impressive technology  
> demonstrations over
> the years, I have to say that my experience at Oak Ridge with Titan is
> probably one of the best. Normally I cover compute as it applies to  
> making
> things look cooler or faster on consumer devices. I may even dabble in
> talking about how better computers enable more efficient  
> datacenters (though
> that's more Johan's beat). But it's very rare that I get to look at  
> the
> application of computing to better understanding life, the world  
> and universe
> around us. It's meaningful, impactful compute.
>
> Read on for our inside look at the Titan supercomputer.
>
> Introduction
>
> Earlier this month I drove out to Oak Ridge, Tennessee to pay a  
> visit to the
> Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). I'd never been to a national lab
> before, but my ORNL visit was for a very specific purpose: to  
> witness the
> final installation of the Titan supercomputer.
>
> ORNL is a US Department of Energy laboratory that's managed by UT- 
> Battelle.
> Oak Ridge has a core competency in computational science, making it  
> not only
> unique among all DoE labs but also making it perfect for a big  
> supercomputer.
>
> Titan is the latest supercomputer to be deployed at Oak Ridge,  
> although it's
> technically a significant upgrade rather than a brand new  
> installation.
> Jaguar, the supercomputer being upgraded, featured 18,688 compute  
> nodes -
> each with a 12-core AMD Opteron CPU. Titan takes the Jaguar base,  
> maintaining
> the same number of compute nodes, but moves to 16-core Opteron CPUs  
> paired
> with an NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU per node. The result is 18,688 CPUs  
> and 18,688
> GPUs, all networked together to make a supercomputer that should be  
> capable
> of landing at or near the top of the TOP500 list.
>
> We won't know Titan's final position on the list until the SC12  
> conference in
> the middle of November (position is determined by the system's  
> performance in
> Linpack), but the recipe for performance is all there. At this  
> point, its
> position on the TOP500 is dependent on software tuning and how  
> reliable the
> newly deployed system has been.
>
> Rows upon rows of cabinets make up the Titan supercomputer
>
> Over the course of a day in Oak Ridge I got a look at everything  
> from how
> Titan was built to the types of applications that are run on the
> supercomputer. Having seen a lot of impressive technology  
> demonstrations over
> the years, I have to say that my experience at Oak Ridge with Titan is
> probably one of the best. Normally I cover compute as it applies to  
> making
> things look cooler or faster on consumer devices. I may even dabble in
> talking about how better computers enable more efficient  
> datacenters (though
> that's more Johan's beat). But it's very rare that I get to look at  
> the
> application of computing to better understanding life, the world  
> and universe
> around us. It's meaningful, impactful compute.
>
> {gallery 2417}
>
> The Hardware
>
> In the 15+ years I've been writing about technology, I've never  
> actually
> covered a supercomputer. I'd never actually seen one until my ORNL  
> visit. I
> have to say, the first time you see a supercomputer it's a bit  
> anticlimactic.
> If you've ever toured a modern datacenter, it doesn't look all that
> different.
>
> A portion of Titan
>
> More Titan, the metal pipes carry coolant
>
> Titan in particular is built from 200 custom 19-inch cabinets.  
> These cabinets
> may look like standard 19-inch x 42RU datacenter racks, but what's  
> inside is
> quite custom. All of the cabinets that make up Titan requires a  
> room that's
> about the size of a basketball court.
>
> The hardware comes from Cray. The Titan installation uses Cray's  
> new XK7
> cabinets, but it's up to the customer to connect together however  
> many they
> want.
>
> ORNL is actually no different than any other compute consumer: its
> supercomputers are upgraded on a regular basis to keep them from being
> obsolete. The pressures are even greater for supercomputers to stay  
> up to
> date, after a period of time it actually costs more to run an older
> supercomputer than it would to upgrade the machine. Like modern  
> datacenters,
> supercomputers are entirely power limited. Titan in particular will  
> consume
> around 9 megawatts of power when fully loaded.
>
> The upgrade cycle for a modern supercomputer is around 4 years.  
> Titan's
> predecessor, Jaguar, was first installed back in 2005 but regularly  
> upgraded
> over the years. Whenever these supercomputers are upgraded, old  
> hardware is
> traded back in to Cray and a credit is issued. Although Titan  
> reuses much of
> the same cabinetry and interconnects as Jaguar, the name change felt
> appropriate given the significant departure in architecture. The Titan
> supercomputer makes use of both CPUs and GPUs for compute. Whereas  
> the latest
> version of Jaguar featured 18,688 12-core AMD Opteron processors,  
> Titan keeps
> the total number of compute nodes the same (18,688) but moves to 16- 
> core AMD
> Opteron 6274 CPUs. What makes the Titan move so significant however  
> is that
> each 16-core Opteron is paired with an NVIDIA K20 (Kepler GK110) GPU.
>
> A Titan compute board: 4 AMD Opteron (16-core CPUs) + 4 NVIDIA  
> Tesla K20 GPUs
>
> The transistor count alone is staggering. Each 16-core Opteron is  
> made up of
> two 8-core die on a single chip, totaling 2.4B transistors built using
> GlobalFoundries' 32nm process. Just in CPU transistors alone, that  
> works out
> to be 44.85 trillion transistors for Titan. Now let's talk GPUs.
>
> NVIDIA's K20 is the server/HPC version of GK110, a part that never  
> had a need
> to go to battle in the consumer space. The K20 features 2688 CUDA  
> cores,
> totaling 7.1 billion transistors per GPU built using TSMC's 28nm  
> process.
> With a 1:1 ratio of CPUs and GPUs, Titan adds another 132.68 trillion
> transistors to the bucket bringing the total transistor count up to  
> over 177
> trillion transistors - for a single supercomputer.
>
> I often use Moore's Law to give me a rough idea of when desktop  
> compute
> performance will make its way into notebooks and then tablets and
> smartphones. With Titan, I can't even begin to connect the dots.  
> There's just
> a ton of computing horsepower available in this installation.
>
> Transistor counts are impressive enough, but when you do the math  
> on the
> number of cores it's even more insane. Titan has a total of 299,008  
> AMD
> Opteron cores. ORNL doesn't break down the number of GPU cores but  
> if I did
> the math correctly we're talking about over 50 million FP32 CUDA  
> cores. The
> total computational power of Titan is expected to be north of 20  
> petaflops.
>
> Each compute node (CPU + GPU) features 32GB of DDR3 memory for the  
> CPU and a
> dedicated 6GB of GDDR5 (ECC enabled) for the K20 GPU. Do the math  
> and that
> works out to be 710TB of memory.
>
> Titan's storage array
>
> System storage is equally impressive: there's a total of 10  
> petabytes of
> storage in Titan. The underlying storage hardware isn't all that  
> interesting
> - ORNL uses 10,000 standard 1TB 7200 RPM 2.5" hard drives. The IO  
> subsystem
> is capable of pushing around 240GB/s of data. ORNL is considering  
> including
> some elements of solid state storage in future upgrades to Titan,  
> but for its
> present needs there is no more cost effective solution for IO than  
> a bunch of
> hard drives. The next round of upgrades will take Titan to around  
> 20 - 30PB
> of storage, at peak transfer speeds of 1TB/s.
>
> Most workloads on Titan will be run remotely, so network  
> connectivity is just
> as important as compute. There are dozens of 10GbE links inbound to  
> the
> machine. Titan is also linked to the DoE's Energy Sciences Network  
> (ESNET)
> 100Gbps backbone.
>
> Physical Architecture
>
> The physical architecture of Titan is just as interesting as the  
> high level
> core and transistor counts. I mentioned earlier that Titan is built  
> from 200
> cabinets. Inside each cabinets are Cray XK7 boards, each of which  
> has four
> AMD G34 sockets and four PCIe slots. These aren't standard desktop  
> PCIe
> slots, but rather much smaller SXM slots. The K20s NVIDIA sells to  
> Cray come
> on little SXM cards without frivolous features like display  
> outputs. The SXM
> form factor is similar to the MXM form factor used in some notebooks.
>
> {gallery 2418}
>
> There's no way around it. ORNL techs had to install 18,688 CPUs and  
> GPUs over
> the past few weeks in order to get Titan up and running. Around 10  
> of the
> formerly-Jaguar cabinets had these new XK boards but were using  
> Fermi GPUs. I
> got to witness one of the older boards get upgraded to K20. The  
> process isn't
> all that different from what you'd see in a desktop: remove screws,  
> remove
> old card, install new card, replace screws. The form factor and  
> scale of
> installation are obviously very different, but the basic premise  
> remains.
>
> As with all computer components, there's no guarantee that every  
> single chip
> and card is going to work. When you're dealing with over 18,000  
> computers as
> a part of a single entity, there are bound to be failures. All of  
> the compute
> nodes go through testing, and faulty hardware swapped out, before  
> the upgrade
> is technically complete.
>
> OS & Software
>
> Titan runs the Cray Linux Environment, which is based on SUSE 11.  
> The OS has
> to be hardened and modified for operation on such a large scale. In  
> order to
> prevent serialization caused by interrupts, Cray takes some of the  
> cores and
> uses them to run all of the OS tasks so that applications running  
> elsewhere
> aren't interrupted by the OS.
>
> Jobs are batch scheduled on Titan using Moab and Torque.
>
> AMD CPUs and NVIDIA GPUs
>
> If you're curious about why Titan uses Opterons, the explanation is  
> actually
> pretty simple. Titan is a large installation of Cray XK7 cabinets,  
> so CPU
> support is actually defined by Cray. Back in 2005 when Jaguar made  
> its debut,
> AMD's Opterons were superior to the Intel Xeon alternative. The  
> evolution of
> Cray's XT/XK lines simply stemmed from that point, with Opteron  
> being the
> supported CPU of choice.
>
> The GPU decision was just as simple. NVIDIA has been focusing on  
> non-gaming
> compute applications for its GPUs for years now. The decision to  
> partner with
> NVIDIA on the Titan project was made around 3 years ago. At the  
> time, AMD
> didn't have a competitive GPU compute roadmap. If you remember back  
> to our
> first Fermi architecture article from back in 2009, I wrote the  
> following:
>
> "By adding support for ECC, enabling C++ and easier Visual Studio
> integration, NVIDIA believes that Fermi will open its Tesla  
> business up to a
> group of clients that would previously not so much as speak to  
> NVIDIA. ECC is
> the killer feature there."
>
> At the time I didn't know it, but ORNL was one of those clients.  
> With almost
> 19,000 GPUs, errors are bound to happen. Having ECC support was a  
> must have
> for GPU enabled Jaguar and Titan compute nodes. The ORNL folks tell  
> me that
> CUDA was also a big selling point for NVIDIA.
>
> Finally, some of the new features specific to K20/GK110 (e.g. Hyper  
> Q and GPU
> Direct) made Kepler the right point to go all-in with GPU compute.
>
> Power Delivery & Cooling
>
> Titan's cabinets require 480V input to reduce overall cable thickness
> compared to standard 208V cabling. Total power consumption for  
> Titan should
> be around 9 megawatts under full load and around 7 megawatts during  
> typical
> use. The building that Titan is housed in has over 25 megawatts of  
> power
> delivered to it.
>
> In the event of a power failure there's no cost effective way to  
> keep the
> compute portion of Titan up and running (remember, 9 megawatts),  
> but you
> still want IO and networking operational. Flywheel based UPSes kick  
> in, in
> the event of a power interruption. They can power Titan's network  
> and IO for
> long enough to give diesel generators time to come on line.
>
> The cabinets themselves are air cooled, however the air itself is  
> chilled
> using liquid cooling before entering the cabinet. ORNL has over  
> 6600 tons of
> cooling capacity just to keep the recirculated air going into these  
> cabinets
> cool.
>
> Applying for Time on Titan
>
> The point of building supercomputers like Titan is to give  
> scientists and
> researchers access to hardware they wouldn't otherwise have. In  
> order to
> actually book time on Titan, you have to apply for it through a  
> proposal
> process.
>
> There's an annual call for proposals, based on which time on Titan  
> will be
> allocated. The machine is available to anyone who wants to use it,  
> although
> the problem you're trying to solve needs to be approved by Oak Ridge.
>
> If you want to get time on Titan you write a proposal through a  
> program
> called Incite. In the proposal you ask to use either Titan or the
> supercomputer at Argonne National Lab (or both). You also outline  
> the problem
> you're trying to solve and why it's important. Researchers have to  
> describe
> their process and algorithms as well as their readiness to use such  
> a monster
> machine. Any program will run on a simple computer, but to need a
> supercomputer with hundreds of thousands of cores the requirements  
> are very
> strict. As a part of the proposal process you'll have to show that  
> you've
> already run your code on machines that are smaller, but similar in  
> nature
> (e.g. 1/3 the scale of Titan).
>
> Your proposal would then be reviewed twice - once for computational  
> readiness
> (can it run on Titan) and once for scientific peer review. The  
> review boards
> rank all of the proposals received, and based on those rankings  
> time is
> awarded on the supercomputers.
>
> The number of requests outweighs the available compute time by  
> around 3x. The
> proposal process is thus highly competitive. The call for proposals  
> goes out
> once a year in April, with proposals due in by the end of June.  
> Time on the
> supercomputers is awarded at the end of October with the accounts  
> going live
> on the first of January. Proposals can be for 1 - 3 years, although  
> the
> multiyear proposals need to renew each year (proving the time has been
> useful, sharing results, etc...).
>
> Programs that run on Titan are typically required to run on at  
> least 1/5 of
> the machine. There are smaller supercomputers available that can be  
> used for
> less demanding tasks. Given how competitive the proposal process  
> is, ORNL
> wants to ensure that those using Titan actually have a need for it.
>
> Once time is booked, jobs are scheduled in batch and researchers  
> get their
> results whenever their turn comes up.
>
> The end user costs for using Titan depend on what you're going to  
> do with the
> data. If you're a research scientist and will publish your  
> findings, the time
> is awarded free of charge. All ORNL asks is that you provide quarterly
> updates and that you credit the lab and the Department of Energy for
> providing the resource.
>
> If, on the other hand, you're a private company wanting to do  
> proprietary
> work you have to pay for your time on the machine. On Jaguar the  
> rate was
> $0.05 per core hour, although with Titan ORNL will be moving to a  
> node-hour
> billing rate since the addition of GPUs throws a wrench in the whole
> core-hour billing increment.
>
> Supercomputing Applications
>
> In the gaming space we use additional compute to model more  
> accurate physics
> and graphics. In supercomputing, the situation isn't very  
> different. Many of
> ORNL's supercomputing projects model the physically untestable  
> (either for
> scale or safety reasons). Instead of getting greater accuracy for  
> the impact
> of an explosion on an enemy, the types of workloads run at ORNL use  
> advances
> in compute to better model the atmosphere, a nuclear reactor or a  
> decaying
> star.
>
> I never really had a good idea of specifically what sort of  
> research was done
> on supercomputers. Luckily I had the opportunity to sit down with  
> Dr. Bronson
> Messer, an astrophysicist looking forward to spending some time on  
> Titan. Dr.
> Messer's work focuses specifically on stellar decay, or what happens
> immediately following a supernova. His work is particularly  
> important as many
> of the elements we take for granted weren't present in the early  
> universe.
> Understanding supernova explosions gives us unique insight into  
> where we came
> from.
>
> For Dr. Messer's studies, there's a lot of CUDA Fortran that's used  
> although
> the total amount of code that runs on GPUs is pretty small. There  
> may be 20K
> - 1M lines of code, but in that complex codebase you're only  
> looking at tens
> of lines of CUDA code for GPU acceleration. There are huge speedups  
> from
> porting those small segments of code to run on GPUs (much of that  
> code is
> small because it's contained within a loop that gets pushed out in  
> parallel
> to GPUs vs. executing serially). Dr. Messer tells me that the  
> actual process
> of porting his code to CUDA isn't all that difficult, after all  
> there aren't
> that many lines to worry about, but it's changing all of the data  
> around to
> make the code more GPU friendly that is time intensive. It's also  
> easy to
> screw up. Interestingly enough, in making his code more GPU  
> friendly a lot of
> the changes actually improved CPU performance as well thanks to  
> improved
> cache locality. Dr. Messer saw a 2x improvement in his CPU code  
> simply by
> making data structures more GPU friendly.
>
> Many of the applications that will run on Titan are similar in  
> nature to Dr.
> Messer's work. At ORNL what the researchers really care about are  
> covers of
> Nature and Science. There are researchers focused on how different  
> types of
> fuels combust at a molecular level. I met another group of folks  
> focused on
> extracting more efficiency out of nuclear reactors. These are all  
> extremely
> complex problems that can't easily be experimented on (e.g. hey  
> let's just
> try not replacing uranium rods for a little while longer and see  
> what happens
> to our nuclear reactor). Scientists at ORNL and around the world  
> working on
> Titan are fundamentally looking to model reality, as accurately as  
> possible,
> so that they can experiment on it. If you think about simulating  
> every quark,
> atom, molecule in whatever system you're trying to model (e.g. fuel  
> in a
> combustion engine), there's a ton of data that you have to keep  
> track of. You
> have to look at how each one of these elementary constituents  
> impacts one
> another when exposed to whatever is happening in the system at the  
> time. It's
> these large scale problems that are fundamentally driving  
> supercomputer
> performance forward, and there's simply no letting up. Even at two  
> orders of
> magnitude better performance than what Titan can deliver with ~300K  
> CPU cores
> and 50M+ GPU cores, there's not enough compute power to simulate  
> most of the
> applications that run on Titan in their entirety. Researchers are  
> still
> limited by the systems they run on and thus have to limit the scope  
> of their
> simulations. Maybe they only look at one slice of a star, or one  
> slice of the
> Earth's atmosphere and work on simulating that fraction of the  
> whole. Go too
> narrow and you'll lose important understanding of the system as a  
> whole. Go
> too broad and you'll lose fidelity that helps give you accurate  
> results.
>
> Given infinite time you'll be able to run anything regardless of  
> hardware,
> but for researchers (who happen to be human) time isn't infinite.  
> Having
> faster hardware can help shorten run times to more manageable  
> amounts. For
> example, reducing a 6 month runtime (which isn't unheard of for  
> many of these
> projects) to something that can execute to completion in a single  
> month can
> have a dramatic impact on productivity. Dr. Messer put it best when  
> told me
> that keeping human beings engaged for a month is a much different  
> proposition
> than keeping human beings engaged for half a year.
>
> There are other types of applications that will run on Titan  
> without the need
> for enormous runtimes, instead they need lots of repetitions. Doing  
> hurricane
> simulation is one of those types of problems. ORNL was in between  
> generations
> of supercomputers at one point and donated some compute time to the  
> National
> Tornado Center in Oklahoma during that transition. During the time  
> they had
> access to the ORNL supercomputer, their forecasts improved  
> tremendously.
>
> ORNL also has a neat visualization room where you can plot, in 3D,  
> the output
> from work you've run on Titan. The problem with running workloads on a
> supercomputer is the output can be terabytes of data - which tends  
> to be
> difficult to analyze in a spreadsheet. Through 3D visualization  
> you're able
> to get a better idea of general trends. It's similar to the  
> motivation behind
> us making lots of bar charts in our reviews vs. just publishing a  
> giant
> spreadsheet, but on a much, much, much larger scale.
>
> The image above is actually showing some data run on Titan  
> simulating a
> pressurized water nuclear reactor. The video below explains a bit  
> more about
> the data and what it means.
>
> Final Words
>
> At a high level, the Titan supercomputer delivers an order of  
> magnitude
> increase in performance over the outgoing Jaguar system at roughly  
> the same
> energy price. Using over 200,000 AMD Opteron cores, Jaguar could  
> deliver
> roughly 2.3 petaflops of performance at around 7MW of power  
> consumption.
> Titan approaches 300,000 AMD Opteron cores but adds nearly 19,000  
> NVIDIA K20
> GPUs, delivering over 20 petaflops of performance at "only" 9MW.  
> The question
> remains: how can it be done again?
>
> In 4 years, Titan will be obsolete and another set of upgrades will  
> have to
> happen to increase performance in the same power envelope. By 2016  
> ORNL hopes
> to be able to build a supercomputer capable of 10x the performance  
> of Titan
> but within a similar power envelope. The trick is, you don't get the
> performance efficiency from first adopting GPUs for compute a  
> second time.
> ORNL will have to rely on process node shrinks and improvements in
> architectural efficiency, on both CPU and GPU fronts, to deliver  
> the next 10x
> performance increase. Over the next few years we'll see more  
> integration
> between the CPU and GPU with an on-die communication fabric. The march
> towards integration will help improve usable performance in  
> supercomputers
> just as it will in client machines.
>
> Increasing performance by 10x in 4 years doesn't seem so far  
> fetched, but
> breaking the 1 Exaflop barrier by 2020 - 2022 will require  
> something much
> more exotic. One possibility is to move from big beefy x86 CPU  
> cores to
> billions of simpler cores. Given ORNL's close relationship with  
> NVIDIA, it's
> likely that the smartphone core approach is being advocated  
> internally.
> Everyone involved has differing definitions of what is a simple  
> core (by 2020
> Haswell will look pretty darn simple), but it's clear that whatever  
> comes
> after Titan's replacement won't just look like a bigger, faster  
> Titan. There
> will have to be more fundamental shifts in order to increase  
> performance by 2
> orders of magnitude over the next decade. Luckily there are many  
> research
> projects that have yet to come to fruition. Die stacking and silicon
> photonics both come to mind, even though we'll need more than just  
> that.
> 	
>
> It's incredible to think that the most recent increase in  
> supercomputer
> performance has its roots in PC gaming. These multi-billion  
> transistor GPUs
> first came about to improve performance and visual fidelity in 3D  
> games. The
> first consumer GPUs were built to better simulate reality so we  
> could have
> more realistic games. It's not too surprising then to think that in  
> the
> research space the same demands apply, although in pursuit of a  
> different
> goal: to create realistic models of the world and universe around  
> us. It's
> honestly one of the best uses of compute that I've ever seen.
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