Linux Software RAID5 Performance
mikeprinkey at hotmail.com
Tue Apr 2 15:07:21 PST 2002
I used the default "ordered" journaling option. I haven't really looked
into the different journaling options and there impact on performance. Does
the ordered option require two writes? Also, any thoughts on performance
tuning or using an external raid1 journal device?
The benchmark application is Bonnie 1.2.
>From: "Gianluca Cecchi" <tekka99 at libero.it>
>To: <mprinkey at aeolusresearch.com>, <beowulf at beowulf.org>
>Subject: Re: Linux Software RAID5 Performance
>Date: Tue, 2 Apr 2002 23:29:55 +0200
>Which option did you use for ext3 journal mechanism? It makes difference
>when using "writeback" vs the default "ordered" (see below part of the
>"Changes" file for ext3)
>Which I/O benchmark did you use?
>New mount options:
> "mount -o journal=update"
> Mounts a filesystem with a Version 1 journal, upgrading the
> journal dynamically to Version 2.
> "mount -o data=journal"
> Journals all data and metadata, so data is written twice. This
> is the mode which all prior versions of ext3 used.
> "mount -o data=ordered"
> Only journals metadata changes, but data updates are flushed to
> disk before any transactions commit. Data writes are not atomic
> but this mode still guarantees that after a crash, files will
> never contain stale data blocks from old files.
> "mount -o data=writeback"
> Only journals metadata changes, and data updates are entirely
> left to the normal "sync" process. After a crash, files will
> may contain stale data blocks from old files: this mode is
> exactly equivalent to running ext2 with a very fast fsck on
>Ordered and Writeback data modes require a Version 2 journal: if you do
>not update the journal format then only the Journaled data will be
>The default data mode is Journaled for a V1 journal, and Ordered for V2.
>----- Original Message -----
>From: "Michael Prinkey" <mikeprinkey at hotmail.com>
>To: <beowulf at beowulf.org>
>Sent: Sunday, March 31, 2002 9:33 PM
>Subject: Linux Software RAID5 Performance
> > Some time ago, a thread discussed the relative performance and stability
> > merits of different RAID solutions. At that time, I gave some results
> > 640-GB arrays that I had build using EIDE drives and Software RAID5. I
> > recently constructed and installed a 1.0-TB array and had some
> > numbers to share for it as well. They are interesting for two reasons:
> > First, the filesystem in use is ext3, rather than ext2. Second, the
> > performance is significantly better (almost 2x) than that of the 640-GB
> > units.
> > The system uses 11 120-GB Maxtor 5400-RPM drives, two Promise Ultra66
> > controllers, a P4 1.6-GHz CPU, an Intel 850 motherboard, and 512 MB ECC
> > RDRAM. Drives are configured in RAID5 (9 data, 1 parity, 1 hot spare).
> > Four drives are on each Promise controller. Three are on the on-board
> > controller (UDMA100). A small boot drive is also on the on-board
> > controller. I had intended to use Ultra100 TX2 controllers, but the
> > EIDE driver updates with TX2 support are not making it into the latest
> > kernels (I'm using 2.4.18), so I opted for the older, slower controllers
> > rather than patching. So, I am both cautious and lazy. 8)
> > Again, performance (see below) is remarkably good, especially
> > all of the strikes against this configuration: EIDE instead of SCSI,
> > instead of 100/133, 5400-RPM instead of 7200-RPM, and master/slave
> > each port instead of a single drive per port. With some hdparm tuning
> > -u 1), the read performance went from 83 MB/sec to 93 MB/sec. Write
> > performance remained essentially unchanged by tuning at 26 MB/sec. For
> > comparison, the 640-GB arrays gave read performance of about 56 MB/sec,
> > write performance of 28.5 MB/sec.
> > Had I more time, I would have tested ext2 vs ext3 to ascertain how much
> > change effected performance. Likewise, I was considering the use of a
> > array as the ext3 journal device to perhaps improve write performance.
> > thoughts?
> > Regards,
> > Mike Prinkey
> > Aeolus Research, Inc.
> > ----------------------
> > [root at tera /root]# df; mount; cat /proc/mdstat; cat bonnie10.log
> > Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
> > /dev/hda6 38764268 2601128 34193976 8% /
> > /dev/hda1 101089 4965 90905 6% /boot
> > /dev/md0 1063591944 58195936 1005396008 6% /raid
> > raid640:/raid/home 630296592 284066148 346230444 46% /mnt/tmp
> > /dev/hda6 on / type ext2 (rw)
> > none on /proc type proc (rw)
> > /dev/hda1 on /boot type ext2 (rw)
> > none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
> > /dev/md0 on /raid type ext3 (rw)
> > automount(pid580) on /misc type autofs
> > (rw,fd=5,pgrp=580,minproto=2,maxproto=3)
> > raid640:/raid/home on /mnt/tmp type nfs (rw,addr=192.168.0.123)
> > Personalities : [raid5]
> > read_ahead 1024 sectors
> > md0 : active raid5 hdl1 hdk1 hdj1 hdi1 hdh1 hdg1
> > hde1 hdd1 hdc1 hdb1
> > 1080546624 blocks level 5, 32k chunk, algorithm 2 [10/10]
> > unused devices: <none>
> > Bonnie 1.2: File '/raid/Bonnie.1027', size: 1048576000, volumes: 10
> > Writing with putc()... done: 14810 kB/s 88.9 %CPU
> > Rewriting... done: 22288 kB/s 13.4 %CPU
> > Writing intelligently... done: 26438 kB/s 21.7 %CPU
> > Reading with getc()... done: 17112 kB/s 97.9 %CPU
> > Reading intelligently... done: 93332 kB/s 32.2 %CPU
> > Seek numbers calculated on first volume only
> > Seeker 1...Seeker 2...Seeker 3...start 'em...done...done...done...
> > ---Sequential Output (nosync)--- ---Sequential Input--
> > Seek-
> > -Per Char- --Block--- -Rewrite-- -Per Char- --Block---
> > (03)-
> > Machine MB K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU
> > %CPU
> > raid05 10*1000 14810 88.9 26438 21.7 22288 13.4 17112 97.9 93332 32.2
> > 2.1
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