Host/interface naming and network path selection
josip at icase.edu
Thu Jan 25 13:25:30 PST 2001
Some of our machines now have multiple network interfaces, which leads
to the following question:
Say machines A,B,C,... can communicate over multiple networks labeled
1,2,...; and say you have a parallel application which launches
processes on A, B and C.
How does your parrallel application know which communication paths to
use? Of course, routing is done based on IP addresses, so the choice of
the path is actually made when names are resolved to IP addresses.
Several weird situations can arise.
(1) Say that network 2 is faster than network 1 but that there is no A2
interface. We could globally identify A=A1, B=B2, C=C2. Now, paths
C2<->B2 and B1,C1->A1 work fine, but A1->B2,C2 requires a gateway (very
bad). One might change /etc/hosts on A such that B=B1 and C=C1 (on A
only), but this is not a globally consistent naming scheme. Some
software needs globally unique machine name -> IP address mappings (it
gets confused when A thinks B=B1 but C thinks B=B2).
(2) Message passing model does not care which interface is used -- it
just wants to talk to some process on some host. A sensible expectation
is that gethostbyname(A) would return a prioritized list of A's
interface IP addresses. This is not what happens. If /etc/hosts is
used, gethostbyname(A) returns the IP address of the first match; if DNS
is used and A is associated with multiple IP addresses, gethostbyname(A)
returns the address list BUT rotates IP addresses on each invocation
(the aim is to provide load sharing for web sites, I guess). This fails
to prioritize paths and can confuse applications which assume globally
unique name<->address mappings.
(3) Another problem can arise in naming public/private interfaces.
The /etc/hosts file can look like this:
192.168.1.1 A-1.domain A-1 A # fast network, private
126.96.36.199 A.domain A-2 A # slow network, public
Locally, A resolves to the fast private network while the FDQN form
A.domain gives the slow public interface, but unfortunately A and
A.domain resolve to different addresses...
I'm sure other related examples can be found. On our system, we were
forced to do the following:
(i) All hosts within the cluster use the same primary network 1 so that
canonical names resolve to A=A1, B=B1, etc.
(ii) Secondary names like A2,B2,... are used where appropriate
(iii) Parallel codes use either hostnames A,B,... (network 1) or
A2,B2,... (network 2) but almost never a mixture of the two
This situation begs for a better solution. One approach (not
universally followed) is to name interfaces A-1,A-2,... and then derive
the canonical hostname A by truncating each name at the '-' character
(some software packages use this procedure). Some kind of consensus on
whether we are talking about hosts or interfaces is needed, particularly
since we'd like parallel codes to be portable between clusters.
Administrator tools to prioritize addresses returned by gethostbyname()
would also be nice.
P.S. My personal preference would be to use canonical hostnames like A
and let the local system figure out what's the best IP address to use.
This would imply that parallel applications should identify
participating hosts by canonical hostnames, not by IP addresses (a host
could have several). Interface naming could follow the A-1,A-2,...
style, but unfortunately this style is not a standard.
Dr. Josip Loncaric, Senior Staff Scientist mailto:josip at icase.edu
ICASE, Mail Stop 132C PGP key at http://www.icase.edu./~josip/
NASA Langley Research Center mailto:j.loncaric at larc.nasa.gov
Hampton, VA 23681-2199, USA Tel. +1 757 864-2192 Fax +1 757 864-6134
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